Some early landmark movies (1890s-1920):

  • 1899: Matches – 30 sec stop-motion, 1st use of animation, encourage audience to send matches to British troops
  • 1902: A Trip to the Moon (14 min) – first science fiction film, innovative use of special effects
  • 1903: The Great Train Robbery (10 min) – multiple camera positions, acceleration editing, introduction of western genre
  • 1914-1918: Claws of the Hun, The Kaiser’s Finish – patriotism propaganda during WWI
  • 1915: Birth of a Nation (3 hour) – very long, extravagant film about the Civil War; very racist

The Printing Press

Printing Press

Johannes Gutenberg is often credited with creating the printing press around 1440 in the Holy Roman Empire. This revolutionary creation allowed written material, like the Bible, to be mass produced in Europe.


Dr. Ben Goertzel

goertzelGoertzel is a Chief Scientist of robotics firm Hanson Robotics and financial prediction firm Aidyia Holdings. Goerzel, who currently resides in Hong Kong, is researching “artificial general intelligence, natural language processing, cognitive science, data mining, machine learning, computational finance, bioinformatics, virtual worlds and gaming” ( He has authored scientific books, technical papers, and journalistic articles with a current interest in artificial intelligence (AI) and its various applications.

Egyptian Papyrus

In 3,000 BCE, the Egyptians create papyrus, a smudge resistant, portable writing surface. Some of the oldest papyri yet discovered (dated 2600 BCE) chronicles the building of the Great Pyramid—the oldest and largest of the three pyramids of Giza—during the reign of Khufu. Scrolls were used for communication and event journaling as they were easily portable.